History of Japan-US cybersecurity cooperation

Last Update: July 9, 2014
Initial Disclosure Date: Sep 25, 2013

  • 2009: The American Chamber of Commerce in Japan (ACCJ) published “Internet Economy White Paper: Achieving the Full Potential of the Internet Economy in Japan” and recommended Japan and the US to initiate Internet Economy Dialogue with the academia, government, and industry. (footnote:1)
  • June 2010: Japanese Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications Kazuhiro Haraguchi and U.S. Ambassador Philip Verveer agreed to launch the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on Internet Economy.
  • November 1, 2010: the first Director-General level meeting of the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy in Tokyo. (footnote:2)
  • November 13, 2010: Prime Minister Naoto Kan and President Barack Obama held a summit meeting in Yokohama and agreed that the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy is “intended to deepen bilateral policy coordination and lay the groundwork for greater U.S.-Japan cooperation in international fora.” (footnote:3)
  • June 9 to 10, 2011: the second Director-General level meeting of the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy in Washington DC. (footnote:4)
  • June 21, 2011: The U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee (SCC) meeting in Washington DC included cybersecurity cooperation in its joint statement for the first time. (footnote:5)
  • September 2011: The Japanese and U.S. governments held the first strategic dialogue on cybersecurity from regional security perspectives in Tokyo. (footnote:6)
  • March 21, 2012: The Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) and ACCJ hosted an industry forum on Internet Economy-related policy cooperation between Japan and the United States and issued a joint statement. (footnote:7)
  • March 22 to 23, 2012: the third Director-General level meeting of the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy in Tokyo. Agreed on the establishment of a bilateral working group to discuss cloud computing service issues. (footnote:8)
  • April 30, 2012: Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda and President Barack Obama met in Washington DC and “agreed on the need to deepen bilateral coordination on cyber issues.” (footnote:9)
  • October 18, 2012: The U.S.-Japan Cloud Computing Working Group issued a report. (footnote:10)
  • October 18 to 10, 2012: the fourth Director-General level meeting of the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy in Washington DC. (footnote:11)
  • January 17, 2013: Japanese and U.S. defense and foreign affairs officials held a working-level meeting in Tokyo to start full-fledged discussions on how to revise the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. Reportedly, the revision is likely to cover cybersecurity. (footnote:12)
  • May 9 to 10, 2013: Japan-U.S. Cyber Dialogue in Tokyo, based on the agreement made by Prime Minister Noda and President Obama in April 2012. (footnote:13)
  • September 2013: The Japanese and U.S. governments reportedly agree to include cybersecurity in the revised Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. The Subcommitee for Defense Cooperation under the SCC will take more than one year to discuss specific statements to include in the guidelines. (footnote:14)
  • October 3, 2013: Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera and Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel met in Tokyo prior to a SCC meeting. They agreed to establish the Cyber Defense Policy Working Group, share information on cyber-attacks and cyber defense technologies, craft a guideline to counter cyber-attacks jointly, and conduct training. (footnote:15)
  • December 5 to 12, 2013: About 4,500 Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and 1,500 U.S. Army personnel conducted an annual joint command post exercise, Yamasakura, in Hokkaido, mainly at JGSDF’s Camp Higashi-Chitose. For the first time they covered a cyber exercise to simulate how to respond together to malware infection of their command and control system. (footnote:16)
  • February 2 to 3, 2014: the first meeting of the Cyber Defense Policy Working Group was held at the Ministry of Defense (MOD), Tokyo, co-chaired by Mr. Ro Manabe, Deputy Chief of Defense Policy Bureau and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense John Davis. Approximately 20 SDF and US forces officers also participated and discussed how to share information on cyber-attacks and their attribution and how to move forward education and training. The governments agreed to start discussing how to define “armed attacks” in cyberspace and include how to respond to cyber-attacks jointly in the new version of the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation, which will be complied by the end of 2014. At his press conference on February 4, Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera stated that Japan needs to define what constitute “armed attacks” in cyberspace and the Japanese government needs to exchange opinions about this with the US government.(footnote:17) The Working Group is holding a meeting about twice a year and the next one will be held in the US in summer 2014.(footnote:18) The MOD and DOD reportedly had planned to discuss starting a new program between them to send SDF officers or non-commissioned officers to U.S. military’s educational courses on cyber defenses in order to enhance SDF’s capability and strengthen the Japan-U.S. alliance in Fiscal Year 2015. (footnote:19)
  • March 12 to 13, 2014: the MIC and State Department held the 5th Director General-level meeting of the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy in Tokyo. On March 12, Keidanren and ACCJ released the U.S.-Japan Internet Economy Industry Forum Joint Statement 2014” and asked the Japanese and US governments about what actions they had taken to industry’s recommendations and suggestions. (footnote:20)
  • April 10, 2014: the Japanese and U.S. governments held the second Japan-U.S. Cyber Dialogue in Washington DC to discuss various cybersecurity issues such as capacity building, cybercrimes, national security issues in cyberspace, the protection of critical infrastructure, and cooperation with other international partners. The Japanese delegation was led by Mr. Jun Shimmi, Japan’s Ambassador in charge of Cyber Policy and Deputy Director General of Foreign Policy Bureau and included the Cabinet Intelligence and Research Office, Cabinet Secretariat (Situations Response and Crisis Management), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), MOD, National Information Security Center (NISC), National Police Agency (NPA), and National Security Council. The U.S. delegation was led by Mr. Christopher Painter, Coordinator for Cyber Issues, U.S. Department of State, and included the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Justice, and National Institute of Standards and Technology.(footnote:21)
  • April 24, 2014: Prime Minister Abe and President Obama had a summit meeting in Tokyo and confirmed bilateral cooperation to provide support for other countries, especially the ASEAN, to help them enhance cyber security such as the deterrence of high tech crimes and the development of cyber confidence-building measures.(footnote:22)
  • July 7, 2014: Catherine Novelli, Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment, held a press conference at the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, and expressed U.S. interests in strengthening Japan-U.S. cooperation to counter cyber crimes. (footnote:23)

Sources:

  1. ACCJ, “Internet Economy White Paper: Achieving the Full Potential of the Internet Economy in Japan,” 2009,
    http://www.asia-strategy.biz/pdfs/accjwhitepaper.pdf , 59
  2. Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “Joint Press Statement for the US-JAPAN Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy - The First Director-General Level Meeting,” November 1, 2010,
    http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000087149.pdf
  3. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, “Fact Sheet on New U.S.-Japan Initiatives,” November 13, 2010,
    http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/usa/visit/president_1011/pdf/initiative_en.pdf , 1
  4. Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “Joint Press Statement for the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy - The Second Director General-Level Meeting”
    http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000117801.pdf
  5. U.S. Department of State, “Joint Statement of the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee - Toward a Deeper and Broader U.S.-Japan Alliance: Building on 50 Years of Partnership,” June 21, 2011,
    http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2011/06/166597.htm
  6. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, “Nichibei anzen hosho taisei ni tsuite [the security posture of Japan and the United States],” June 2012,
    http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/usa/hosho/taisei.html
  7. Japan Business Federation, “U.S.-Japan Business Dialogue on the Internet Economy - Joint Statement,” March 21, 2012,
    http://www.keidanren.or.jp/english/policy/2012/020.html
  8. Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “Joint Press Statement for the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy - The Third Director General-Level Meeting,” March 23, 2012,
    http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000151286.pdf
  9. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, “Fact Sheet: U.S.-Japan Cooperative Initiatives,” April 30, 2012,
    http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/n-america/us/pmv1204/pdfs/Fact_Sheet_en.pdf , 4-5
  10. Japan Business Federation, “U.S.-Japan Cloud Computing Working Group Report,” October 18, 2012,
    http://www.keidanren.or.jp/en/policy/2012/073.html
  11. Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “Joint Press Statement for the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy - The Fourth Director General-Level Meeting,” October 19, 2012,
    http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000180929.pdf
  12. Kyodo News, “Talks start with U.S. on new defense plan - Greater SDF role sought as China grows more assertive,” January 18, 2013,
    http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/01/18/national/talks-start-with-u-s-on-new-defense-plan/
  13. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, “Joint Statement - Japan-U.S. Cyber Dialogue,” May 10, 2013,
    http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/page22e_000001.html
  14. Yomiuri Shimbun, “Saiba boei, Nichibei shishin saikaitei he… Chugoku kensei [Japan and the U.S. are revising the defense guidelines again to cover cyber defense… probably China in their mind],” September 30, 2013,
    http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/news/20130929-OYT1T00954.htm
  15. Mainichi Shimbun Online, “2 plus 2: ‘Saiba boei seisaku sagyo bukai’ secchi kakunin [the 2 + 2 meeting agreed to establish the Cyber Defense Policy Working Group],” October 3, 2013
    http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20131003k0000e010218000c.html
  16. Sankei Shimbun, “’Saiba kogeki’ mo sotei Rikuji to beigun ga zujo kunren Hokkaido [the JGSDF and US Army conducted a joint command post exercise, which included a cyber exercise, in Hokkaido],” December 5, 2013,
    http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/news/131205/hkd13120518210000-n1.htm
    Asahi Shimbun, “Jieitai, saiba-sen ni hangeki dekiru? ‘Dai 5 no senjo’ chumoku [Can the SDF deal with cyber warfare? What is going on in the fifth operational domain],” January 30, 2014,
    http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASG1Y5JFGG1YUTIL024.html
  17. Jiji, “Saiba taisho de hatsu kyogi = jinteki koryu kyoka nado kento  Nichibei [the Japanese and US governments had the first meeting of the Cyber Defense Policy Working Group to discuss exchange programs],” February 3, 2014
    http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=pol_30&k=2014020300635
    Mainichi Shimbun, “Saiba kogeki: Nichibei de kyodo no taisyo sakutei he [the Japanese and US governments will define how to respond to cyber-attacks jointly],” February 4, 2014,
    http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20140205k0000m010119000c.html
  18. Sankei Shimbun, “Saiba boei Nichibei renkei kyoka de icchi [the Japanese and US governments agreed to enhance their cooperation on cyber defenses],” February 5, 2014,
    http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/140205/plc14020509110007-n1.htm
  19. Yomiuri Shimbun, “Nichi Bei ga saiba boei kyoka, kyodo de senmon yoin yosei he [Japan and the U.S. are enhancing cyber defenses and plan to co-educate experts],” January 27, 2014,
    http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/net/news0/politics/20140126-OYT1T00909.htm?from=ylist
  20. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “Joint Press Statement for the U.S.-Japan Policy Cooperation Dialogue on the Internet Economy: The Fifth Director General-Level Meeting,” March 13, 2014,
    http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000279477.pdf
    ACCJ and Keidanren, “U.S.-Japan Internet Economy Industry Forum Joint Statement 2014,” March 2014,
    http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000279497.pdf , 6
  21. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Dai 2 kai Nichi-bei saiba taiwa no kaisai [the 2nd Japan-U.S. Cyber Dialogue],” April 9, 2014,
    http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/press4_000833.html
    Kyodo News, “Saiba boei he kyoryoku suishin Nichi-bei ga hokatsu taiwa [Japan and the U.S. held a comprehensive dialogue to move forward bilateral cooperation on cybersecurity],” April 11, 2014,
    http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/140411/amr14041109040004-n1.htm
    U.S. Department of State, ”The Second US-Japan Cyber Dialogue,” April 10, 2014,
    http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2014/04/224648.htm?goMobile=0
  22. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “FACT SHEET: U.S.-Japan Global and Regional Cooperation,” April 25, 2014,
    http://www.mofa.go.jp/na/na1/us/page24e_000046.html
  23. Sankei Shimbun, “Saiba hanzai boshi nado de Nichibei no kyoryoku kyoka [Japan and the U.S. are keen to strengthen cooperation to counter cyber crimes],” July 7, 2014, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “FACT SHEET: U.S.-Japan Global and Regional Cooperation,” April 25, 2014,
    http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/140707/amr14070718260004-n1.htm


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